Lavspenning/Emergency lighting in tunnels

< Lavspenning

1 Purpose

This technical specification sets out objective requirements to enable suppliers to construct, produce and deliver a system to facilitate a safe and efficient evacuation of tunnels in case of an emergency situation according to Bane NOR’s expectations.

2 Scope

This specification is valid for:

  • new tunnels: tunnels under planning or construction.
  • existing tunnels: tunnels to be equipped with emergency aids without being upgraded with greater traffic capacity (e.g. by more tracks or by greater profile and hence higher speed/throughput).

In case of smoke generation in the tunnel, the smoke will collect in the upper part of the tunnel, and any light is likely to be scattered and reflected by the smoke. Hence any emergency light should be positioned at a low level to provide the best illumination of the escape route without annoying scattered light. The principles are described in ISO 16069.

The evacuation may be enhanced by a hand-rail, emergency lighting and by signs indicating the direction and length of the escape route.

This specification gives functional requirements for:

  • emergency lighting
  • hand-rail
  • signs for evacuation

The hand-rail and the emergency lighting may be integrated into one functional unit where the light may be positioned inside the hand-rail or under the lower part of the hand-rail – depending on the design of the hand-rail.

Another option is to install discrete lighting armatures in addition to a discrete hand-rail.

2.1 Possible configurations for feeding the emergency lighting

Depending on the requirements for emergency lighting, available power sources and redundancy some possible configurations are depicted in Figur 1. The upper configuration depicts 2 (or 4) power stations with uninterruptable power supply (UPS) and 8 sections for feeding the light sources. The following configurations are defined:

  1. configuration 0: all circuits are fed from one source (at end (A) - the three rightmost UPSs shown in configuration 1 are not provided).
  2. configuration 1: the sections are fed from the nearest local end.
  3. configuration 2: the sections are fed from the nearest UPS.
  4. configuration 3: every second light source is fed from end (A), and every second light source is fed from end (B) – at least for sections 2 to 7.
  5. configuration 4: every second light source is fed from the UPS immediately to the left, and every second light is fed from the UPS immediately to the right – at least for sections 2 to 7.

Note that the number of UPSs, light sources in a section and sections are indicative and does not match with the practical situation in a particular tunnel. Depending of the position of the first and last UPS, section 1 and 8 in Figur 1 may not necessarily be present. The feeding of one section constitutes a dedicated electrical circuit (IT system).

Figur 1: Feeding configurations of emergency light sources in a tunnel.

2.2 Possible combinations of hand-rail and emergency lighting

Three possible combinations of emergency lighting and hand-rail exist, namely:

  1. Separate hand-rail and discrete lighting fixture.
  2. Transparent hand-rail with lighting fixture integrated within the hand-rail.
  3. Hand-rail with lighting fixture attached at the lower part of the hand-rail profile.

All the three combinations are likely to be used, however, only one should be selected.

3 Requirements

3.1 General

a) All material used for hand-rails, any part of the signs, emergency lighting, cables, fixtures and accessories located in the escape route of the tunnel shall be free of halogens and generate a limitted volume of toxic gases by heat exposure or combustion.

b) If a tunnel contains two tracks, an installation of signs, hand-rail and emergency lighting shall be dedicated for each track.

c) Requirements regarding pressure and sunction in tunnels are present in [https://trv.jbv.no/wiki/Tunneler/Prosjektering_og_bygging/Laster#Nyttelast].

d) Requirements for environment testing is present in [https://trv.jbv.no/wiki/Lavspenning/Prosjektering/Generelle_tekniske_krav#Mekanisk_og_klimatisk_milj.C3.B8].

3.2 Requirements for signs

Tunnels of 100 m or more should have signs to indicate escape routes.

a) The signs shall comply with ISO 3864-1.

b) The signs shall be protected (e.g. with nano fibers or similar) against graffiti.

c) The signs shall have an IP 66 to allow cleaning (preferably IP 69K (according to DIN 40050-9)).

d) The signs indicating the escape routes in the tunnel shall include the following information:

  • A pictogram indicating evacuation.
  • The distance of the escape route in meters in direction A and a corresponding arrow indicating the direction.
  • The distance of the escape route in meters in direction B and a corresponding arrow indicating the direction.
  • A line indicating the slope of the tunnel.
  • The signs shall be fixed to the tunnel wall at a height above the hand-rail.

e) Any emergency exits from the main tunnel (to evacuation room or alternative escape route) shall be marked with signs with the following information:

  • A pictogram indicating evacuation.
  • The information: "EXIT".

f) Any position with emergency equipment (e.g. fire-extinguishing equipment) or activation of the emergency lighting shall be indicated with a sign containing the relevant information (pictogram etc.).

3.2.1 Additional requirements in new tunnels of 1 000 m and more

a) The emergency signs shall be illuminated.

  1. Electrical powering may be by dedicated electrical circuits or in common with the emergency lighting for the nearby section. Local batteries should be avoided.
  2. If electric power to the illuminated signs is not granted for 90 minutes (by use of fire-proof cabling or fire-proof cables), the signs should have a photo-luminescent coating.

3.3 Requirements for hand-rail

Hand-rail should be provided in new tunnels of more than 500 m.

a) The hand-rail shall be constructed of non-metallic (non-conductive) materials.

b) The hand-rail shall be attached to the tunnel wall at a defined height close to the gangway:

  1. For discrete hand-rail: 0,8 m - 1,1 m
  2. For transparent hand-rail with integrated light source: 0,8 m
  3. For hand-rail with attached light source: 0,8 m

c) The hand-rail may consist of a rope, provided that the rope is securely anchored at each fixture.

3.4 Requirements for emergency lighting

New tunnels of more than 500 m will be provided with emergency lighting.

a) If discrete lighting armatures attached to the tunnel wall is installed, the following applies:

  1. The armatures shall be positioned in a height of no more than 0,75 m above the gangway.
  2. The armatures shall be separated by no more than 10 m.

b) The lights (either discrete armatures, integrated in hand-rail or attached to hand-rail) shall be directed to the gangway.

  1. In existing tunnels the emergency lighting shall provide a minimum of 0,2 lux at ground level.
  2. In new tunnels the emergency lighting shall provide a minimum of 1,0 lux at ground level.
  3. The light sources shall be protected from falling dust.

d) The armatures (if applicable: the hand-rail with integrated emergency lighing) shall have an IP 66 to allow cleaning (preferably IP 69K (according to DIN 40050-9)).

  1. Cable entrances for armatures shall be from below or shall comply with IP 69K.

3.4.1 Auxilary power, UPSs

a) The emergency lighting shall be provided with normal power and prolonged by auxilary power from UPSs.

b) The UPS(s) shall be able to supply the PLS unit, the connected sections with emergency lights and the connected backlighted signs for a period of minimum 120 minutes in case the normal power supply should fail.

c) The UPS shall distribute power to the individual sections of lights by dedicated circuits (cables) with a floating supply (IT supply).

d) The feding circuits (cables) shall have individual overcurrent protection with an all-pole disconnection.

e) A fault in one feeding circuit (cable) shall not affect the supply of the other circuits (cables).

3.4.2 Configuration and redundancy

a) The configuration and redundancy of the emergency lighting depends on the number of avavilable power stations in the tunnel, see Tabell 1.

Tabell 1: Configuration and redundancy
Number of available UPSs 1 2 3 >3
Maximum length of sections 100 m 100 m 100 m 100 m
Minimum configuration
Existing tunnel, one track 0 1 2 2
Existing tunnel, two tracks 0 1 2 2
New tunnel, one track 0 2 3 3
New tunnel, two tracks 0 2 2 2

In new tunnels the escape route in the tunnel to a safe area should not be more than 1 000 m, and in conjunction with the safe area it is likely to be power installations with an UPS.

3.4.3 Activation and supervision

a) The emergency lighting shall be monitored and controlled by a PLS unit (programmable logic sequencer) or similar equipment.

b) The PLS unit shall communicate with a maintenance center using either GSM-R or optical fibres.

c) The safety installation of the railway shall provide control of the PLS and hence the emergency lighting.

  1. The safety installation shall provide information whether there is a train in the tunnel.
  2. Indication of present train(s) shall light up the emergency lighting.
  3. Indication of no present train and no indication of manual activation shall turn of the emergency lighting.
  4. Illumination of signs may either be synchonous with the emergency lighting or may always be present.

d) A switch in each end of the tunnel shall trigger the PLS and hence (re-)activate the emergency lighting.

e) In new tunnels there shall be activation switches for the emergency lighting at every 250 m.

3.4.4 Fire precausion

a) The feeding cables shall either be fire-proof or the feeding cables shall be contained in a fire-proof duct, preventing damage to the feeding circuits during a fire.

  1. The lights and the cabling within a section need not necessarily be protected against damage due to a local fire within the section.

4 Documentation

a) Requirements for documentation is stated in [https://trv.jbv.no/wiki/Felles_bestemmelser/Generelle_bestemmelser#Dokumentasjon].

5 Complience list

Complient:
(YES / NO )
... any comments
2.1 ---/--- Possible configurations for feeding the emergency lighting
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2.2 ---/--- Possible combinations of hand-rail and emergency lighting
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3 ---/--- Requirements
3.1 ---/--- General
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b)
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d)
3.2 ---/--- Requirements for signs
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b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
3.2.1 ---/--- Additional requirements in new tunnels of 1 000 m and more
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3.3 ---/--- Requirements for hand-rail
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c)
3.4 ---/--- Requirements for emergency lighting
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b)
c)
d)
3.4.1 ---/--- Auxilary power, UPSs
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b)
c)
d)
e)
3.4.2 ---/--- Configuration and redundancy
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3.4.3 ---/--- Activation and supervision
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b)
c)
d)
e)
3.4.4 ---/--- Fire precausion
a)
4 ---/--- Documentation
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