Overbygning/Ballastfri sporkonstruksjon

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1 Scope

This specification sets out objective requirements to enable suppliers to deliver ballastless track construction systems that meet the expectations of Bane NOR.

This specification applies to delivery of a complete track system comprising bearing elements, elastic elements and rail fastenings.

This specification is applicable for railway applications up to 250 kN axle loads and a nominal track gauge of 1435 mm.

2 Functional requirements

2.1 Axle load and speed

The ballastless track system shall be designed to accommodate the following combinations of axle loads and speed:

  • Axleload = 17 tonnes at speed = 300 km/h
  • Axleload = 18 tonnes at speed = 250 km/h
  • Axleload = 20 tonnes at speed = 200 km/h
  • Axleload = 22,5 tonnes at speed = 100 km/h
  • Axleload = 25 tonnes at speed = 70 km/h

2.2 Track geometry

  • The ballastless track system shall be designed to accomodate horizontal curve radius down to 200 meter.
  • The ballastless track system shall be designed to accomodate vertical curve radius down to 1300 meter.
  • The ballastless track system shall be designed to accomodate track cant up to 180 mm.

2.3 Reliability, availability and maintainability

  • The ballast free track system shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with requirements in EN 50126
  • Aspects for the maintainability of ballastless track systems shall be considered during the design phase. This should include inspection, repair and replacement of components and subsystems.
  • Ballastless track systems shall have a design life of at least 50 years
  • Components which are subject to shorter life span due to wear and fatigue, e.g. rails and fastening components, shall have adequate provision for replacement.

3 Design loads

3.1 Vertical loads

  • The characteristic loads defined in EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.2 shall be applied for the design of ballastless track systems.
  • The standard load model 71 according to EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.3.2, shall be applied for calculation.
  • The adjustment factor α shall be limited to maximum 1,0.
  • Due to the ballast-free track construction and operation is not necessary to consider a whole train for load assessment . Based on load model 71, the maximum load values of a train shall be taken into account.
  • In curves, a quasistatic load distribution factor of 1,2 shall be added to the outer rail.

3.2 Horizontal loads

  • The track construction shall be designed to resist lateral force of minimum 1.0 x (10 + P / 3) = 93 kN

P = static axle load ≤ 250 kN

3.3 Centrifugal forces

  • Centrifugal loads shall be applied as defined in EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.5.1.
  • The reduction factor shall be taken as f =1.

3.4 Nosing forces

  • The nosing force shall be applied as defined in EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.5.2.
  • The characteristic value of the nosing force shall be 100kN
  • The nosing force shall be equally distributed over a length of 1,6 m.

3.5 Longitudinal forces

  • Longitudinal loads shall be as defined in EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.5.3
  • Requirements due to acceleration and braking train shall be considered.

3.6 Dynamic loads

  • The track construction shall be designed with a dynamic load factor (DAF) of 1,5.

3.7 Fatigue loads

  • A fatigue damage assessment shall be carried out for the track construction.
  • The definition of fatigue loads shall be based on EN 1991-2:2003 + AC:2010, clause 6.9.

3.8 Safety Factor

  • For line speed above 210 km/h a safety factor (SF) of 1,5 shall be applied.

4 Construction

4.1 General

  • Only materials with established suitability shall be used.
  • Materials where aging can affect mechanical properties shall not be used in the supporting layers
  • Uncovered flammable materials shall not be used in the supporting layers
  • If sleepers or concrete blocks takes part of the track construction, requirements given in Concrete sleepers, blocks and bearers shall be fullfilled
  • If prefrabricated concrete structures takes part of the track construction, requirements given in Slabs, frames and other pre-fabricated structures shall be fullfilled
  • If an in-situ cast pavement (roadbed) is used as a support layer in the track construction, requirements given in Pavements shall be fullfilled

4.2 Concrete sleepers, blocks and bearers

  • Concrete sleepers, blocks and bearers used in the ballastless track system shall fullfill the requirements given in EN 13230 - part 1-5

4.3 Slabs, frames and other pre-fabricated structures

4.3.1 General design rules

  • A design rule shall be established for the load distribution and internal forces on each prefabricated concrete structure of ballastless track system
  • The design rules shall take into consideration the dynamic behaviour of the loadings and the response of the system

4.3.2 Design rules for slabs

4.3.2.1 Design of active and passive reinforcement, limit states and fatigue checking

The following requiremenst shall be fullfilled:

  • Ultimate Limit States (ULS) according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 6, EN 1992-1-1
  • Serviceability Limit States (SLS) according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 7, EN 1992-1-1
  • Fatigue checking according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 6.8
  • Damage equivalent stresses for fatigue checking according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008
  • Detailing of reinforcement and pre-stressing tendons according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 8
  • Detailing of members and particular rules according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 9
  • Design of reinforcement according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 6 (Ultimate Limit States) and EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 7 (Serviceability Limit States)

4.3.2.2 Durability, cover, environmental conditions, material characteristics and crack control

The following requiremenst shall be fullfilled:

  • Durability and concrete cover of reinforcement according to EN 1992-2:2005 + AC:2008, clause 4
  • Exposure classes related to environmental actions according to EN 206-1, 4.1 respectively EN 1992-1-1:2004+AC 2010, Table 4.1
  • Mechanical properties of concrete and steel according to EN 1992-2, 3 respectively EN 206-1
  • Crack control according to EN 1991-2:2003+AC_2010, clause 7.3

4.3.3 Design rules for blocks

  • The load distribution on each individual block shall be obtained according to prEN 13230-6:2013, Annex 2.2.1. For this purpose the stiffness of the ballast shall be replaced for those of the elastic support of the block.
  • The design of the reinforcement shall be made according to EN 1992-1-1.

4.3.4 Materials

  • The concrete shall comply with EN 206-1
  • Minimum compressive strength shall be class C45/55 MPa
  • Where aggregates contain varieties of silica susceptible to attack by alkalis (Na2O and K2O originating from cement or other sources) precautions in the choice of constituents shall be taken

4.3.5 Surface finish

  • The top surface and sides of the concrete element shall have a uniform appearance.
  • The depth of air holes should not be larger than 1,0 cm.
  • The rail seat area shall be free of any individual large void
  • Remedial work on a concrete element after demoulding may only be carried out if detailed procedures are established within the description of the manufacturing process.

4.3.6 Marking

Each element shall be permanently marked to ensure traceability.

4.3.7 On-site installation

  • A method statement shall be provided with regard to the on-site installation as part of the track system. This method statement shall include the installation method step by step which ensures that the geometrical tolerances are met
  • It shall be ensured that slabs are continuously supported and bedded
  • It shall be ensured that the blocks are properly supported and bedded on the “in situ” concrete layer

4.4 Pavements

4.4.1 General design rules

  • Only concrete pavements can be used in the ballastless track system
  • Concrete pavements supporting sleeper panels shall be equipped with respective interfaces/tools to handle longitudinal and transversal forces activated by train runs and climatic impacts distributed to the sleeper panel.
  • Concrete pavements for ballastless track systems shall be designed based according to EN 13877-1 and EN 13877-2
  • Maximum crack width, shall not exceed 0,5mm

4.4.2 Material

  • The concrete shall comply with EN 206-1
  • Minimum compressive strength shall be class C30/37 N/mm2
  • Bending strength shall be class F4,5 (4,5 N/mm2) or higher
  • Water/cement ratio shall be less than 0,45
  • Minimum cement content shall be 340 kg/m3
  • Use of low-alkali cement with total alkali content, stated as Na2O equivalent, less or equal to 0,60 % and SO3 content less or equal to 3,0%
  • The total mass of reactive alkalis in the concrete shall not exceed 3,0 kg/m3.

4.5 Rails

  • The Track construction shall be designed to accomodate 60E1 rails according to EN 13674-1
  • The Track construction shall be designed with rail inclination 1:20

4.5.1 Rail welding

  • The Track construction shall be designed with continuosly welded rails
  • The Track construction shall be designed to allow aluminiotermic rail welding using welding processes approved according to EN 14730-1
  • The Track construction shall be designed to allow mobile flash butt welding according to EN 14587-2

4.6 Fastenings

  • The track construction shall be designed with fastening of category D according to EN 13841-5
  • Minimum mean clamping force for each rail seat shall be 16 kN when tested according to EN 13146-7.
  • The combined static stiffness from rail pad and other elastic layers in the track system shall be in the range of 20 - 25 kN/mm when measured in accordance with EN 13146-9
  • The combined low frequency dynamic stiffness from rail pad and other elastic layers in the track system shall not exceed 37,5 kN/mm when measured in accordance with EN 13146-9.
  • The fastening system shall allow for in-service vertical rail adjustment of +20 mm and in-service horizontal rail adjustment of ±5 mm for each fastening point.
  • All fastening components shall be preinstalled in the ballastless track system
  • The fastening system shall allow for fully mechanized release and fastening of the rails without any wrench operation

4.7 Track geometry tolerances

The following tolerances apply to completed track system when the rails are installed:

4.7.1 Track gauge

  • The track construction shall be designed for nominal track gauge = 1435 mm
  • Track gauge tolerance for fully assembled track is -0 mm / + 4 mm (1435 mm - 1439 mm)
  • Maximum track gauge variation over 10 meter track length is 2 mm

4.7.2 Longitudinal level

  • Maximum mean to peak longitudinal level of each individual rail is 2 mm in the wavelength range 3 - 70 meter

4.7.3 Cant

  • Maximum mean to peak cross level over 20 meter length is 2 mm

4.7.4 Alignment

  • Maximum mean to peak versine level is 2 mm in the wavelength range 3 - 70 meter

5 Electrical interfaces

5.1 Earthing and bonding

  • Continuous longitudinal concrete elements in the ballastless track system shall be bonded to a longitudinal grounding conductor.
  • Connections shall be performed mechanically and electrically stable, and be protected against corrosion.
  • Connections shall be available for inspection.
  • The system shall be designed and tested in accordance to EN 50122-1

5.2 Rail to rail insulation

The track system shall provide a minimum rail to rail electrical insulation of 5 kΩ when measured in accordance with EN 13146-5

6 Noise and vibrations

Specific environmental noise or vibration requirements may be required. To meet the requirements, particular characteristics or subsystem performance will be specified.

7 Production testing and acceptance

Prior to start of manufacturing, a quality plan including all quality documents in relation with the acceptance of materials and manufacturing of the concrete elements shall be established and approved by Bane NOR. The quality plan shall include:

  • frequency of testing for each dimensional requirement
  • part of the quality control frequency for load tests on concrete elements
  • procedure used to increase the testing frequency when defects are identified
  • actions to be taken in the case of defects being found to ensure remedial works and recheck for compliance or not acceptance for delivery

The following tests, analysis and documents shall be part of the quality plan:

Tabell 1: Raw materials
Item Description Reference of standard
Cement Certificates from the cement supplier EN 197-1
Aggregates Petrographic analysis EN 12620
Steel Certificates from steel supplier EN 10080
Fastening system components Certificates from component suppliers EN 13146

Tabell 2: Manufacturing process
Item Description Reference of standard
Formwork Geometry, strength, stiffness, finish
Concrete Compressive strength at 7 and 28 days

Water/cement ratio

Compressive strength at pre-stressing release

EN 206-1
Steel Position of steel with regard to nominal position
Curing Accelerated curing cycle and maximum temperature
Pre-stressing force Pre-stressing force applied (direct or indirect according to manufacturing process)

Tabell 3: Finished product
Item Description Reference of standard
Surface finish and general appearance Visual inspection of the slabs Part of approved quality plan
Fastening systems Routine tests in relation with the fastening system Part of approved quality plan
Length Length of the slab Part of approved quality plan
Width Width of the slab Part of approved quality plan
Height/Thickness Height/Thickness of the slab Part of approved quality plan
Rail seat distance Rail seat distance between each neighbouring pair of fasteners Part of approved quality plan
Rail inclination Rail inclination in each fastening system Part of approved quality plan
Rail gauge Rail gauge Part of approved quality plan
Mass Mass of the slab Part of approved quality plan

Tabell 4: On-site installation
Item Description Reference of standard
Surface finish and general appearance Visual inspection of the slabs Part of approved quality plan
Fastening systems Routine tests in relation with the fastening system Part of approved quality plan
Rail inclination Rail inclination in each fastening system Part of approved quality plan
Rail gauge Track geometry measurments - longitudinal level - Rail gauge EN 13848
Support of the slab Continuous support of the installed slab Part of approved quality plan
Vertical position of the finished track Track geometry measurments - longitudinal level EN 13848
Horizontal position of the finished track Track geometry measurments - alignement EN 13848
Rail seat distance Rail seat distance between each neighbouring pair of fasteners Part of approved quality plan
Slab protection Protection of the slab after on-site installation Part of approved quality plan

8 Documentation

8.1 Design approval documents

The supplier shall deliver following documentation of the track system:

  • Detailed drawings of the concrete element and components included
  • Detailed information of the reinforcing system (including anchoring system for pre-stressed elements)
  • Detailed information about concrete composition
  • Geometrical test results with description of the gauge and measurement method for each dimension
  • Calculations and optionally load tests on concrete elements with the description of the measurement means and method
  • Test report showing compliance of the elements with the dimensions and maximum specified tolerances
  • Documentation and material sertificates for all fastening components

8.2 Quality control documents

Test records from production testing shall be retained and be made available to the purchaser as and when requested.

9 References

EN 50126 The specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS)
EN 1991-2 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges
EN 13230 Railway applications - Track - Concrete sleepers and bearers
EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete bridges - Design and detailing rules
EN 206-1 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity
EN 1992-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings
EN 13230-6 Railway applications - Track – Concrete sleepers and bearers – Part 6: Design
EN 13877-1 Concrete pavements – Part 1: Materials
EN 13877-2 Concrete pavements – Part 2: Functional requirements for concrete pavements
EN 13674-1 Railway applications - Track – Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above
EN 14730-1 Railway applications - Track – Approval of aluminiotermic welding processes
EN 14587-2 Railway applications - Track – New R220, R260, R260Mn and R350HT by mobile welding machines at sites other than a fixed plant.
EN 13841-5 Railway applications – Track – Performance requirements for fastening systems – Part 5: Fastening systems for slab track with rail on the surface or rail embedded in a channel
EN 50122-1 Railway applications – Fixed installations – Electrical safety, earthing and the return circuit Part 1. Protective provisions against electric shock.
EN 13146-5 Railway applications – Track – Test methods for fastening systems - Part 5: Determination of electrical resistance
EN 13146-7 Railway applications – Track – Test methods for fastening systems - Part 7: Determination of clamping force
EN 13146-9 Railway applications – Track – Test methods for fastening systems - Part 9: Determination of stiffness
EN 197-1 Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements
EN 12620 Aggregates for concrete
EN 10080 Steel for the reinforcement of concrete - Weldable reinforcing steel - General
EN 13848 Railway applications - Track – Track geometry quality

10 Change log