Overbygning/Sporveksler, kryss og sporforbindelser

< Overbygning

1 Scope

This specification sets out objective requirements concerning the units to be supplied, to enable suppliers to design, manufacture, inspect and deliver a product that meets the expectations of Bane NOR.

This specification applies to switch assemblies, switch components, crossings and leads supplied to Bane NOR, but not to any electrical or electronic components of these units.

2 Function/General requirements

A switch is a piece of trackwork used to set the train route when there are two or more options. Switches must comply with the following general requirements:


2.1 Track structure

Switches must be designed for the following track structure:

  • Nominal gauge1435 mm
  • Rail inclination1:20
  • Rail profile60E1 and 54E3
  • Sleeper typeConcrete/Wood
  • Sleeper spacing60 cm


2.2 Maximum permissible loads

Switches must be designed to tolerate the following combinations of speed and axleload:

  • Axleload = 18 tonnes at speed = 250 km/h
  • Axleload = 22.5 tonnes at speed = 200 km/h
  • Axleload = 25 tonnes at speed = 70 km/h
  • Axleload = 30 tonnes at speed = 50 km/h

Switches must be designed to withstand axial forces caused by temperature fluctuations of ± 50 °C and braking trains with a total weight of 2000 tonnes max.

2.3 Geometry

Appendix 1 shows the geometry of the different types of switch.


3 Design/Materials

3.1 Crossing

Both fixed crossing and swingnose crossing must be available for switches with basic geometry 1:9, 1:12, 1:14 and 1:15. Switches with basic geometry 1:18 and 1:26 shall be delivered with swingnose crossing.

3.1.1 Fixed crossing

  • Fixed crossings must be cast in one piece from 12–14% manganese steel and manufactured in accordance with EN 15689.
  • The rail inclination of the running surface must be 1:20
  • Crossings must be supplied with welded-on 2,4 meter lomg rail-ends of grade R350 HT in accordance with EN 13674-1.
  • An 18–20 mm long bridging-piece of INOX must connect the manganese steel crossing to the rail-ends.
  • Electric resistance welding must be used to attach the bridging-piece in accordance with prEN 14587-3.
  • Dimensional tolerances for the crossing are given in EN 13232-6.
  • The supplier shall provide engineering drawings for templates and tools necessary for checking the dimensions.

3.1.2 Swingnose crossing

Swingnose crossings can be made either with movable point or movable wing rails.

  • The crossing must be designed in a way that a continuous running surface without gap is formed over the area where the two rails are crossing each other.
  • The movable part of the crossing must be made of rail steel R350 HT in accordance with EN 13674-2.
  • The fixed part of the crossing must be cast from 12–14% manganese steel and manufactured in accordance with EN 15689.
  • The crossing part in manganese steel must be supplied with welded-on rail-ends of grade R350 HT in accordance with EN 13674-1.
  • An 18–20 mm long bridging-piece of INOX must connect the manganese steel crossing to the rail-ends.
  • Electric resistance welding must be used to attach the bridging-piece in accordance with prEN 14587-3.
  • Dimensional tolerances for the crossing are given in EN 13232-7.
  • The supplier shall provide engineering drawings for templates and tools necessary for checking the dimensions.

3.2 Intermediate rails

Intermediate rails must be of grade R350 HT in accordance with EN 13674-1.

3.3 Switch blade assembly

Switches must have flexible blades delivered in accordance with EN 13674-2.

The following switch blade profiles must be delivered:

  • 54E3 switchblade profile 54E1A3
  • 60E1 switchblade profile 60E1A4

Material grade: R350 HT in accordance with EN 13674-2

Switch blade assemblies must be supplied with blade bearers capable of accommodating switch heating elements.

3.4 Check rails

  • Check rails on all switches must be 20 mm higher than the railhead or, in the case of side crossings for switch diamonds, 45 mm higher than the railhead.
  • The check rails must be manufactured in accordance with EN 13674-3
  • Profile:33C1
  • Material grade:C320 Cr

3.5 Sleepers

3.6 Sleeper screws

Sleeper screws must comply with Bane NOR – Technical specification – Sleeper screws and UIC 864.

3.7 Fastenings

  • Switches must be supplied with the Pandrol Fastclip/Pandrol e-clip (2039) fastening system with 10 mm rubber pads.
  • Materials used in springs, isolators and pads must comply with Pandrol’s specifications.

3.8 Insulated rail joints

Insulated rail joints must comply with Bane NOR – Technical specification – Glued insulated rail joints with steel fishplates.

3.9 Baseplates

  • Baseplates must be made of cast steel with a minimum thickness of 20 mm.
  • Baseplates must be adapted to the coordinates of the switch.
  • Material grade:EN-GJMB-450-6 in accordance with EN 1562

3.10 Slide plates

  • Slide plates must be cast steel plates with internal fastening, type IBAV.
  • Slide plates must be lubrication-free, i.e. the external surface must have a friction-reducing coating.

Material grade:EN-GJMB-450-6 in accordance with EN 1562

3.10.1 Surface coating of slide plates

The friction coefficient of the surface coating must be sufficiently low to allow the switch to be moved without any lubricant being applied to the slide plate. The coating must be corrosion-resistant in the conditions under which the switch is to be used. The coating must comply with the following requirements over its entire lifetime:

  • Friction coefficient against switch blade in dry conditionsmax. 0.65
  • Hardnessmin. 50 HRC
  • Adhesiveness to base materialmin. 200 80 N/mm2
  • Lifespanmin. 10 years/
  • Min. number of movements:700 000

3.11 Bolts

Material grade:Durability category 10.9

3.12 Blade supports

Material grade:EN-GJMB-450-6 in accordance with EN 1562

4 Manufacture

Prior to machining, the supplier must ensure that rails and switch blades comply with the maximum permissible variations in straightness and curvature specified in EN 13674-1 and EN 13674-2

4.1 Cutting

All rails and switch blades must be cut using chip-cutting tools. The edges of the cut surfaces must be bevelled at an angle of 45°.

4.2 Bending

  • A hydraulic press must be used for bending switch components. To minimise detrimental stresses in the steel, reshaping must be performed slowly and steadily.
  • Pressing blocks must follow the entire rail/blade profile and must be designed so that they do not leave localised indentations in the rail.
  • Any necessary holes must be drilled only after bending has been completed.

4.2.1 Cold bending

Bending of up to 5° must be performed at normal temperature, provided the temperature of the material is at least +15 °C.

4.2.2 Hot bending

  • Bending exceeding 5° must be performed at a temperature between +640 and +680 °C.
  • The rail must be heated from both sides so that the material reaches approximately the same temperature over its entire profile.
  • The area heated should be 15–20 cm long.
  • The time taken to heat the material from +20 to +600 °C must not be less than 30 minutes.
  • The temperature must be continuously monitored using temperature-sensitive chalk or a temperature meter.
  • To allow the material to cool slowly, the buckling point must be wrapped in thermally insulating sheets.
  • The time taken to cool from +600 to +20 °C must not be less than 7 hours.
  • The pressing blocks must match the rail profile and must be wide enough not to leave an indentation in the rail.

4.3 Drilling

  • The distance between two holes, edge to edge, shall not be less than 2xdiameter of the minimal hole
  • The distance between the edge of a hole and the edge of the switch blade/rail or a profile transition, shall not be less than the diameter of the hole
  • Holes must be drilled with undamaged tools and coolant.
  • All drilled holes must be bevelled at an angle of 45°. If the rail is to be bent, holes must always be drilled after bending.
  • Plugging of holes with help of welding or other means is not permitted

4.4 Welding

  • Switch components must be electric arc welded only where indicated on the drawing.
  • Electric arc welding must be carried out by welders certified in accordance with EN 287-1.
  • A welding procedure specification in accordance with EN 15607 must be prepared for every welded joint.
  • For aluminothermic welding of rail joints, the requirements set out in section Welding of rail joints apply.

4.5 Machining

All machining must be performed in such a way that the specified tolerances and requirements for surface roughness are maintained. In the case of measurements for which no tolerances are defined, the provisions of ISO 2768-1 will generally apply. All burrs must be removed after machining.

4.6 Anticorrosive treatment

  • All surfaces that come into contact with one another must be thoroughly cleaned and coated with a layer of anticorrosive paint prior to bolting together.
  • The coating must be approved by Bane NOR and must be completely dry before the components are assembled.
  • All welding seams must be coated with anticorrosive paint or oil.
  • All machined sliding surfaces on the blade bases, slide plates, lever mechanism etc. must be thoroughly cleaned prior to assembly and coated with anticorrosive lubricant.
  • All machined, exposed and isolated parts of a switch assembly – i.e. blades and stock rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails – must be thoroughly cleaned and coated with a layer of anticorrosive paint after the switch has been assembled and inspected.
  • Unmachined surfaces (with mill scale) and the cut ends of the rails do not require painting.

5 Assembly

5.1 General

5.1.1 Base

The base on which the switch is to be mounted must be stable and sufficiently flat for the assembly tolerances specified in section to be maintained.

5.1.2 Milling marks

All milling marks must be ground away at points where stretchers, blade bearers etc. are to be joined to the rail.

5.1.3 Tightening of bolts/nuts

  • Bolted joints with double circlips must be tightened until a gap of approx. 1 mm remains.
  • In the case of prestressed joints, the nuts must be tightened using a dynamometric wrench until the moment indicated on the drawing or specification is reached.

5.2 Curved switches

Curved switches must always be laid out and assembled for trial purposes at the factory.

5.3 Slip switches

In the case of single slip switches and double slip switches, the intermediate section must always be assembled for trial purposes at the factory. The rail joints are to be marked in a way that facilitates reassembly of the switch.

5.4 Welding of rail joints

Rail joints must be welded in accordance with JD 531, chapter 6. The following welding processes may be used:

  • Elektro Thermit Smw-F/SoWos
  • Elektro Thermit SkV/SkV Elite
  • Railtech PLA

Welding work must be executed in accordance with a written welding procedure by welders trained in the method to be used. Welders and welding procedure must be approved by Bane NOR prior to the work being carried out.

5.5 Switch blade assembly

  • On installation of the blade assembly, the maximum permitted clearance between blade and stock rail or blade and blade bearer is 1 mm.
  • The distance between the toe of the open blade and the stock rail must be at least 140 mm.
  • The minimum distance between the open blade and the stock rail must be 58 mm.
  • The blades must be manufactured and installed in such a way that they are tension-free at 80 mm from the closed position.
  • The blades must have the correct shape – straight or curved – when fully closed against the stock rail.
  • The blades must be able to move unimpeded and connect properly with the stock rail in the closed position.

5.6 Tolerances

5.6.1 Track gauge, check rail gauge, flangeway

Tabell 1 shows the permissible variations from the measurements indicated on the switch drawing.

Tabell 1: Gauge and flangeway tolerances

Reference measurement Toleran­ces (mm)
Track gauge at blade toe +3 / -1
Track gauge, switch section +3 / -1
Track gauge, intermediate section +3 / -1
Track gauge, crossing section (30 mm from crossing nose) +2 / -1
Check rail gauge, crossing section (30 mm from crossing nose) ± 2
Flangeway at check rail ± 2

5.6.2 Straightness of joints

The tolerances apply to the following types of joint:

  • Welded rail joints, including INOX joints between manganese steel and normal rail
  • Insulated rail joints

Deviations in the straightness of the running surface and running edge are to be checked over a measuring basis of 1 m. Tabell 2 shows the permissible variations.

Tabell 2: Straightness of joints

Running surface + 0,3 mm / - 0,0 mm
Running edge + 0,0 mm / - 0,3 mm

5.6.3 Placing of sleepers

The horizontal distance between stock rail joints and the centre of each sleeper must not deviate from the measurement indicated on the switch drawing by more than the tolerances shown in Tabell 3.

Tabell 3: Placing of sleepers

For switches with wooden sleepers ± 10 mm
For switches with concrete sleepers ± 2 mm

5.6.4 Crossings

The tolerances specified in EN 13232-6 and EN 13232-7 apply to crossings.

5.6.5 Switch blades

The tolerances specified in EN 13232-5 apply to switch blades.

6 Labelling

6.1 Main label

All switches are to be labelled with a manufacturer’s plate containing the following information:

  • Switch type
  • Rail profile
  • Gradient
  • Radius of turnout
  • Supplier
  • Date of installation

The manufacturer’s plate must be attached to the outside of the left-hand stock rail at the rail joint. The type of labelling used must be such that the information remains legible for at least 10 years after installation.

The following abbreviations for switch types must be used:

  • EV - Single switch
  • EKV - Single slip
  • DKV - Double slip

6.2 Slip switches

The individual components and joints of slip switches must be labelled to facilitate installation.


6.3 Marking of blade in neutral position

The position of the blade toe when closed against the stock rail with the switch lying in neutral position must be marked on the stock rail. The marking must comprise a stroke of white paint on the running surface and three centre-punch marks in the side of the stock rail at the point where the blade toe meets it.


7 Transport

  • Switch components must be stored and transported on a wooden base/frame at least 50 mm thick.
  • The base must be flat in order to prevent any permanent deformities.
  • Switch components must always be lifted using equipment that will not cause any permanent deformities.

8 Documentation

8.1 Drawings

8.1.1 System drawings

The supplier must prepare the following drawings prior to manufacture of any switch type:

  • Main drawing of entire switch assembly in plane view – scale 1:50
  • General drawing of switch section in plane view – scale 1:20
  • General drawing of crossing section in plane view – scale 1:20
  • Detail drawing of crossing in plane view, with necessary cross-sections – scale 1:5
  • Detail drawing of switch blade and stock rail in plane view, with necessary cross-sections – scale 1:5
  • Detail drawing of check rail and running rail in plane view, with necessary cross-sections – scale 1:5
  • Drawing of all types of baseplate

All text on the drawings must be in Norwegian. All drawings must be supplied in both of the following electronic formats:

  • dwg (Autocad)
  • pdf

The supplier has an obligation to supply files that are compatible with the version of Autocad currently used by Bane NOR.

Bane NOR must be assigned all rights to the drawings. All drawings must be approved by Bane NOR before production commences.

8.1.2 Assembly/installation drawings

Every switch assembly supplied must be accompanied by the following drawings:

  • Main drawing of entire switch assembly in plane view – scale 1:50
  • General drawing of switch section in plane view – scale 1:20
  • General drawing of crossing section in plane view – scale 1:20

The drawings must include sleeper numbers and all measurements necessary for assembly of the switch. The drawings must show the switch “as installed”, i.e. any curvature must be shown.

All text on the drawings must be in Norwegian. All drawings must be supplied in both of the following electronic formats:

  • dwg (Autocad)
  • pdf

Bane NOR must be assigned all rights to the drawings.

8.1.3 Parts lists

The supplier must prepare a comprehensive parts list for each switch type. Parts lists must be supplied in Open Document Format (ODF).

8.1.4 Materials certificates

The supplier must maintain comprehensive records of each order for switches. These records must include materials certificates for the following components:

  • Switch blades/Stock rails
  • Rails
  • Crossing
  • Check rails
  • Base plates
  • Slide plates
  • Bolts/Nuts
  • Blade bearers
  • Filler material used in welded joints

The records are to be retained by the supplier, but must be available for inspection by Bane NOR at any time. On request, the supplier must submit materials certificates to Bane NOR.

8.2 Welding certificates

Before signing the contract, the supplier must furnish Bane NOR with documents confirming the qualifications of welders.

8.3 Welding procedures

Before commencing production, the supplier must furnish Bane NOR with approved welding procedure specifications for all joints which are to be electric arc welded.

Welding procedures for aluminothermic welding of rail joints must be submitted to Bane NOR for approval before production commences.

8.4 Documentation of final inspection

Documents showing that a final inspection has been carried out in accordance with section 9.4 and that the outcome has been approved must be retained by the supplier for each individual switch. These documents must be available for inspection by Bane NOR at any time. On request, the supplier must submit any documents relating to the final inspection to Bane NOR.

9 Approval testing

9.1 General

Bane NOR reserves the right of free access to the supplier’s factory for the purposes of inspecting production, materials and documentation.

The supplier must prepare a set of templates for checking selected profiles within the switch assembly:

  • Distinctive blade profiles
  • Flangeways
  • Distinctive profiles within the crossing

The templates must be approved by Bane NOR before production commences.

9.2 Prototype switches

Prior to series production of any switch type not previously supplied by the supplier, a prototype of the switch must be inspected and approved by Bane NOR. The prototype switch must be assembled complete with sleepers so that the blades can be moved unimpeded.

9.3 Special switches

Prior to delivery of curved switches, crossovers, crossings or other special switches, Bane NOR may request that the switch is assembled complete with sleepers for inspection purposes.

9.4 Final inspection

The supplier must perform the following checks on each switch prior to delivery:

10 Reference documents

EN 13674-1 Railway Applications – Track – Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above
EN 13674-2 Railway Applications – Track - Switch and crossing rails used in conjunction with Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above
EN 13674-3 Railway Applications – Track - Check rails
EN 13232-5 Railway Applications – Track – Switches and Crossings -Switches
EN 13232-6 Railway Applications – Track – Switches and Crossings - Fixed common and obtuse crossings
EN 13232-7 Railway Applications – Track – Switches and Crossings - Crossings with moveable parts
EN 15689 Railway Applications – Track – Switches and Crossings – Cast austenitic manganese steel for crossing components
prEN 14587-3 Railway Applications – Track Welding in association with crossing construction
JD531, kap6 Bane NOR Teknisk regelverk/Overbygning/Bygging/Helsveist_spor
Bane NOR - Technical specification - Switches & Crossing sleepers
Bane NOR - Technical specification - Wooden sleepers
Bane NOR – Technical specification – Glued insulated rail joints with steel fishplates
Bane NOR - Technical specification - Sleeper screws
UIC 864-1 Technical specification - sleeper screws
EN 287-1 Approval testing of welders for fusion welding
EN 15607 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials – General rules
EN 1562 Founding - Malleable cast irons
ISO 2768-1 General tolerances for linear and angular dimensions without individual tolerance indications

11 Appendices

  1. Summary of switch types
  2. Sleeper coordinates